Annotated Bibliography for Catastrophism: History, Chronology, and Archaeology

Breasted, James H. Development of Religion and Thought in Ancient Egypt.
New York, 1912.

Clark, R. T. Rundle. Myth and Symbol in Ancient Egypt.
Thames and Hudson Ltd., London, 1959.

This book remains the classic introduction to the world of Egyptian mythology and religion. Rundle covers myths of the high god, Osiris, and other great gods, as well as mythological symbols such as the eye, the waters of eternity, the ka, the djed column, the lotus, the cosmic serpent, the phoenix, and others.

Erman, Adolf. The Ancient Egyptians: A Sourcebook of their Writings.
Harper and Row, New York, 1966.

This is a reprint of Aylward M. Blackman's 1927 English translation of Erman's classic German collection of ancient Egyptian texts published in 1923. Blackman's translations are old-fashioned, adopting an archaic style of English. The introduction by Egyptologist William Kelly Simpson describes advances in understanding the included texts as well as a list of important texts discovered between 1927 and 1966.

Most of you will probably prefer the more readable translations by Lichtheim or Simpson et al. However, Erman's book remains widely used despite its age, and his notes on the texts are still worth reading.

Feder, Kenneth L. Frauds, Myths, And Mysteries: Science and Pseudoscience in Archaeology.
Mayfield Publishing, 1990.

Feder discusses hoaxes such as the Piltdown Man as well as the ancient astronauts of Von Daniken and the pre-Columbian visitors of Barry Fell.

Gardiner, Sir Alan Henderson. Egypt of the Pharoahs, an introduction.
Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1961.

Although showing signs of age, this book by one of the premier British archaeologists of this century remains an excellent introduction to the history of Egypt from the earlier times to the late period.

Harrold, Francis and Raymond Eve, eds. Cult Archaeology And Creationism: Understanding Pseudoscientific Beliefs about the Past.
University of Iowa Press, 1987.

Hodges, Peter. How The Pyramids Were Built.
Element Books Ltd., Longmead, Shaftesbury, Dorset, 1989.

Architect Julian Keable edited this manuscript written by master builder Peter Hodges, who died in 1980. Hodges rejected the conventional idea that the Egyptians used ramps to erect the pyramids. Instead, Hodges suggested that levers alone were sufficient.

Keable adds his own ideas about the type of lever the Egyptians may have used. He also documents the block flow problem that he believes poses a major difficulty for the standard theories of pyramid construction.

James, Peter. Centuries of Darkness.
Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ, 1993.

James and his colleagues suggest that the customary dating of Old World archaeology is incorrect and suggest a new shorter chronology.

Kitchen, Kenneth Anderson. The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (1100-650 B.C.).
Aris and Phillips Ltd, Warminster, 1973.

This is the standard work documenting the history of Egypt during the periods of Libyan and Ethiopian domination.

Lehmann, Johannes. The Hittites: People of a Thousand Gods.
The Viking Press, New York, 1977.

This is a translation of Lehmann's book from German by by J. Maxwell Brownjohn. Lehmann provides a good popular account of the history of the Hittites as unraveled by scholars over the past century.

Lieblein, Jens. Recherches sur la chronologie egyptienne d'apres les listes genealogiques.
A. W. Brogger, Christiana, 1873.

Lieblein, Jens. Recherches sur l'histoire et la civilization de l'ancienne Egypt.
J. C. Hinrich'sche, Leipzig, 1873.

Lichtheim, Miriam. Ancient Egyptian Literature.
University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1973.

Lichtheim presents, in up-to-date translations, a selection of ancient Egyptian literature "in a chronological arrangement designed to bring out the evolution of literary forms." The first volume covers the Old and Middle Kingdoms; the second volume covers the New Kingdom; the third volume covers the Late Period. Along with the translation, there is an introduction to each piece and end-notes on matters on translation and content.

Mercer, Samuel A. B. Horus, Royal God of Egypt.
Grafton, Mass., 1942.

Mercer discusses the history and texts relating to the sagas of Isis, Osiris, and Horus in ancient Egypt.

Mercer, Samuel A. B. Literary Criticism of the Pyramid Texts.
Luzac and Company Ltd., London, 1956.

In this short book, Mercer discusses the various textual variants, rituals, literary characteristics, and stylistic considerations in the Pyramid Texts. Also see his complete translation of the Pyramid Texts.

Mercer, Samuel A. B. The Pyramid Texts, Volumes I-IV.
New York, 1942.

Mercer was one of the foremost translators of Egyptian documents earlier in this century. Mercer's translation of the Pyramid Texts from the 1940s is still widely used.

Meyer, Eduard. Aegyptische Chronologie.
Abhandlungen der K. Preuss. Akad. der Wiss, Berlin, 1904.

Meyer's chronology for the Middle Kingdom and later was, until recently, the standard chronological framework for ancient Egypt. Recent work on dating the explosion of Thera to around 1622 B.C., combined with stratigraphical analysis of the volcanic debris to the reign of Hatshepsut, appear to require moving back New Kingdom dates by about 125 years.

Newton, Isaac. The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended.
J. Tonson, London, 1728.

Many people do not know that Newton wrote a great deal about Biblical history and chronology. In this work, Newton suggests that the chronology of the New Kingdom -- derived in Newton's day largely from epitomes of Manetho's history of Egypt -- should be lowered by some four hundred years.

It may come as a surprise to fans of Velikovsky to learn that he was not the first to suggest a reduction in Egyptian chronology for the New Kingdom and Late Period. In addition to Newton, the classicist Torr and the Egyptologist Lieblein also supported similar reductions late in the nineteenth century. In recent years, James and his colleagues have followed in this tradition of lowering the start of the Egyptian New Kingdom -- and chronologies associated with it -- by several hundred years.

Romer, John. Testament.
Henry Holt and Company, New York, 1988.

Rubinsky, Yuri and Ian Wiseman. A History of the End of the World.
Quill, New York, 1982.

Rubinsky and Wiseman present an entertaining look at the history of ideas about the end of the world. Their book comprises a series of short vignettes giving basic information as well as pointers to more detailed references. Ancient times provide the Flood stories of Mesopotamia, Greece, and India; the end-time stories of Zoroastrianism, Islam, and the Norse; and the Biblical apocalyptic prophets. Modern times provide Velikovsky and intriguing speculative fiction.

Simpson, William Kelly, editor. The Literature of Ancient Egypt.
Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 1973.

Kelly presents a compilation of translations of ancient Egyptian literature by himself, R. O. Faulkner, and Edward F. Wente. The translators attempt to retain something of the characteristics of the original Egyptian text. This represents a compromise between accuracy and smoothness. Kelly points out that smoothness can easily result in paraphrase, while complete accuracy can result in clumsiness in English which is foreign to the original Egyptian.

Sprague de Camp, L. The Ancient Engineers.
Ballantine Books, New York, 1988.

Sprague de Camp provides a good overview to the history of engineering.

Stiebing, William H. Ancient Astronauts, Cosmic Collisions, And Other Popular Theories About Man's Past.
Prometheus Books, 1984.

Torr, Cecil. Memphis and Mycenae.
Cambridge University Press, 1896.

Williams, Stephen. Fantastic Archaeology: The Wild Side of North American Prehistory.
University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991.

Williams cover the history of archaeology in the United States. Topics covered include possible frauds like the Kensington Rune Stone, the hyperdiffusionist ideas of Barry Fell and others concerning the pre-Columbian influence of Romans, Celts, and others on Native American cultures, and the archaeological claims of the Book of Mormon.

Wilson, Ian. Exodus: The True Story.
Harper and Row, San Francisco, 1985.

Note: This bibliography bears a copyright.

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Last modified by pib on May 17, 2000.