Annotated Bibliography for Catastrophism: Biology and Biomechanics


Alexander, R. McNeil. Exploring Biomechanics.
Scientific American Library, New Tork, 1992.

Alexander introduces biomechanics in a readable non-technical style. He discusses walking, running, flying, and swimming.


Corballis, Michael C. The Lopsided Ape.
Oxford University Press, New York, 1991.


Economos, Angelos C. "The Largest Land Mammal."
Journal of Theoretical Biology, Vol. 89 (1981), pp. 211-215.

Economos suggests that the largest land mammal could weigh no more than about 20,000 kg (around 44,000 lbs). Economos uses the idea of "metabolic cost" to demonstrate how gravity imposes an upper limit to the size of mammals. He notes that the largest known mammal, the Indricotherium, is estimated to have weighed about 20,000 kg.


Hokkanen, J.E.I. "The Size of the Largest Land Animal."
Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol. 118 (1986), pp. 491-499.


Rauber, Anton.
Gegenbaurs Morphologisches Jahrbuch, vol. 7(1882), p. 327.

Rauber, a nineteenth century anatomist, argues that the elephant approaches the upper limit for the size of a land mammal. See the papers by Economos and Hokkanen for more modern estimates of the size of the largest possible land mammal.


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Last modified by pib on March 20, 1999.